Main Article Content

Małgorzata Strzelczyk
Magdalena Chudy


Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is one of the plants that have accompanied mankind for thousands of years. Fiber hemp belongs to the group of useful plants whose large yields of biomass can be used in a variety of ways. The enormous potential of this plant is used in almost every industry sector: from pulp and paper industry to light industry (clothing, textiles) as well as in other manufacturing branches which include toys, flower pots, disinfecting mats and even funeral urns. Hemp is characterized by high plasticity and resistance to changing agro-climatic factors, thanks to which extreme weather conditions are not an obstacle to its cultivation. However, similarly to other species, the final yield is contingent on the interaction of several important factors. Hemp variety, sowing density, harvest time and fertilization are relevant factors which have a bearing on shaping hemp’s biomass. The influence of weather conditions on the yield of biomass and the content of cannabinoids is not to be underestimated either. Poland has a long-standing tradition of growing and processing hemp. The nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century turned out to be extremely successful for hemp, because its cultivation was widespread almost all over Poland. In the 1920s and 1930s, the hemp acreage was about 29,000 ha. The cultivation of industrial hemp in our country is subject to strict legal restrictions formulated in the Act of July 29, 2005 on Counteracting Drug Addiction (with further amendments). Nevertheless, interest in this fascinating plant is growing.

Article Details

Jak cytować
Strzelczyk, M. ., & Chudy, M. (2021). WEATHER FACTORS AND BASIC NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CULTIVATION OF INDUSTRIAL HEMP ( Cannabis sativa L.). Zeszyty Problemowe Postępów Nauk Rolniczych, (601), 37–48.

Amaducci S., Zatta A., Pelatti F., Venturi G., 2008a. Influence of agronomic factors on yield andquality of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) fiber and implication for an innovative production system. Field Crops Res (107), 161–169.

Amaducci S., Zatta A., Raffanini M., Venturi G., 2008b. Characterization of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) roots under different growing conditions. Plant and Soil (313), 227–235.

Andre Ch. M., Hausman J.F., Guerriero G., 2016. Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules. Front. Plant Sci. 7(19), 1–17.

Angelini L.G., Tavarini S., di Candolo M., 2016. Performance of new and traditional fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars for novel applications: stem, bark and core yield and chemical composition. J. Nat. Fibers 13(2), 238–252. DOI: 10.1080/15440478.2015.1029193.

Baraniecki P., 2014. Plonowanie konopi siewnych (Cannabis sativa L.) w zależności od czynników siedliskowych i agrotechnicznych [PhD thesis]. Biblioteka IWNiRZ, Poznań [in Polish].

Ben Amar M., 2006. Cannabinoids in medicine: A review of their therapeutic potential. J. Ethnopharmacol. (105), 1–25.

Bennett S.J., Snell R., Wright D., 2006. Effect of variety, seed rate and time of cutting on fiber yield of dew-retted hemp. Industrial Crops and Products (24), 79–86.

Beuth B., Dowgielewicz S., 1958. Technologia konopi. Wydaw. Przemysłu Lekkiego i Spożywczego, Warszawa [in Polish].

Boìcsa I., Karus M., 1997. Der Hanfanbau. C. F. Muller, Heidelberg [in Deutsch].

Boìcsa I., Karus M., 1998. The cultivation of hemp. Botany, varieties, cultivation and harvesting. Hemptech, Sebastopol [in Deutsch].

Boìcsa I., Karus M., Lohmeyer D., 2000. Der Hanfanbau. Botanik, Sorten, Anbau Und Ernte, Markte Und Productlinien. Vollstandig uberarbeitete Und erganzte 2. Landwirtschaftsverlag GmbH, Münster [in Deutsch].

Burczyk H., Grabowska L., Kołodziej J., Strybe M., 2008. Industrial Hemp as a Raw Material for Energy Production. J. Ind. Hemp. 13(1), 37–48.

Burczyk H., Grabowska L. Strybe M., Konczewicz W., 2009a. Effect of Sowing Density and date of harvest on biomass, straw, panicle, seed, cellulose and fiber yield of industrial hemp. J. Nat. Fibers (6), 115–126.

Burczyk H., Kaniewski R., Konczewicz W., Kryszak N., Turowski J., 2009b. Konopie włókniste źródłem olejków eterycznych. Pamiętnik Puławski (151), 37–49 [in Polish].

Callaway J.C., 2004. Hempseed as a nutritional recourses: an overview. Euphytica (140), 65–72.

Chandra S., Lata H., Mehmedic Z.,. Khan I.A., ElSohly M.A., 2010. Assessment of cannabinoids content in micropropagated plants of Cannabis sativa L. and their comparison with conventionally propagated plants and mother plant during developmental stages of growth. Planta Medica (76), 743–750.

Cierpucha W., 2013. Technologia Uprawy i Przetwórstwa Konopi Włóknistych. Nowa metoda rekultywacji terenów zdegradowanych w rejonie Kopalni Węgla Brunatnego (KWB) Konin z zastosowaniem uprawy konopi włóknistych. Project of collateral from the financial instrument LIFE + of the European Union and co-financed by the National Environmental Protection and Water Management measures 11ENV/PL/445, 12–31 [in Polish].

Cosentino S.L., Testa G., Scordia D., Copani V., 2012. Sowing time and prediction of flowering of different hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) genotypes in southern Europe. Ind Crops Prod. (37), 20– 33.

Dempsey J.M., 1975. Fiber crops. Hemp. University of Florida Press, Gainesvile.

Faux A.M., 2014. Quantitative approach of the genetic determinism of sex expression in monoecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), and its relationship with flowering phenology and stem and seed yields [PhD thesis]. Universite Catholique de Louvain. Retrived from: [access: 19.12.2020].

Fike J., 2016. Indus trial Hemp: Renewed Opportunities for an Ancient Crop. Crit Rev Plant Sci. (35), 5–6, 406–424. DOI: 10.1080/07352689.2016.1257842.

Finnan J., Burke B., 2013. Potassium fertilization of hemp (Cannabis sativa). Ind Crops Prod. (41 ), 41 9– 422.

Grabowska L., 2000. Wpływ warunków siedliskowych i agrotechnicznych na wzrost, rozwójplonowanie konopi [PhD thesis] Biblioteka IWNiRZ, Poznań.

Grabowska L., 2005. Rola infrastruktury i techniki w zrównoważonym rozwoju rolnictwa. IMBER, Warszawa [in Polish].

Grabowska L., 2007. Konopie włókniste wracają na polskie pola. Pomorskie wieści rolnicze (10), 15–16 [in Polish].

Grabowska L., Burczyk H., 2005. Wybrane zagadnienia z uprawy konopi włóknistych w Polsce. Zagadnienia Doradztwa Rolniczego (4), 121–127 [in Polish].

Grabowska L., Koziara W., 2001. Wpływ temperatury i opadów na plonowanie konopi włóknistych odmiany Białobrzeskie. Natural Fibres 45, 7–17 [in Polish].

Grabowska L., Koziara W., 2005. The Effect of Nitrogen Dose, Sowing Density and Time of Harvest on Development and Yields of Hemp Cultivar Bialobrzeskie. J. Nat. Fibers 2(4), 1–17.

Hai H., Rippchen R., 1994. Das Hanf-Handbuch. Der Grüne Zweig 173, Löhrbach [in Deutsch].

Hall J., Bhattarai S.P., Midmore D.J., 2014. Effect of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) planting density on weed suppression, crop growth, physiological responses, and fiber yieldthe subtropics. Renewable Bioresources 2(1), 1. Retrieved from:

Hill A.J., Williams C.M ., Whalley B.J., Stephens G.J., 2012. Phytocannabinoids as novel therapeutic agents in CNS disorders. Pharmacology & Therapeutics (133), 9–97.

Jadczyszyn T., Kowalczyk J., Lipiński W., 2010. Zalecenia nawozowe dla roślin uprawy polowej i trwałych użytków zielonych. Materiały szkoleniowe nr 95. IUNG-PIB, Puławy.

Jankauskienë Z., 2015. Screening of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars for biomass yielding capacities in Lithuania. J. Nat. Fibers 12(4), 368–377. DOI: 10.1080/15440478.2014.929556.

Karus M., Gahle Ch., Pendarovski C., Vogt D., Ortmann S., Grotenhermen F., 1998 HanfsamenHanföl als Lebens- und Heilmittel: ein Ratgeber. nova- Institute, Köln [in Deutsch].

Körber-Grohne U., 1988. Naturpflanzen in Deutchland: Kulturgeschichte und Biologie. Konrad Thesis Verlag, Stuttgart [in Deutsch].

Kotuła L., Sobstyl P., Sobstyl J., Chwil P., Terlecki K., Karwat J., Gil-Kulik P., Niedojadło A., Kocki J., 2014. Application of medical Cannabis in patients with the neurodegeneration disorders. Modern Phytomorphology (6), 121.

Krasowicz S., 2012. Przesłanki racjonalnego wykorzystania gleb polski. Roczniki Naukowe Stowarzyszenia Ekonomistów Rolnictwa i Agrobiznesu. Instytut Uprawy Nawożenia i Gleboznawstwa - PIB w Puławach 14(5): 113-117. [in Polish].

Lekavicius V., Shipkovs P., Ivanovs S., Rucins A., 2015. Thermo-insulation properties of hemp-based products. Latv. J. Phys. Tech. Sci. (1), 38–51.

Makowiecka J., Wielgus K., 2014. Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids – Retrospective and Historical Developments. J. Nat. Fibers (11)3, 185–198. DOI: 10.1080/15440478.2013.861782.

Manaia J.P., Manaia A.T., Rodriges L., 2019. Industrial Hemp Fibers: An Overview. J Fibers 7, 106. DOI: 10.3390/fib7120106.

Mańkowska G., Luwańska A., Wielgus K., Bocianowski J., 2015. Evaluation of cannabinoid content in selected varieties of Cannabis sativa L. Biul. IHAR (227), 79–86.

Makowski J., Kołodziej J., Pudełko K., Kozłowski R.M., 2020. Bast fibres: the role of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in remediation of degraded lands. In: R.M. Kozłowski, M. Mackiewicz-Talarczyk (eds), Handbook of Natural Fibres. Elsevier, Caqmbridge, 2, 393–417.

Oleszak G., 2009. A może konopie. Tygodnik rolniczy (35), 28–29 [in Polish].

Pate D.W., 1994. Chemical ecology of Cannabis. JIHA 2(1), 32–37.

Pate D.W., 1999. Hemp seed: a valuable food source. Advances in hemp research. The Haworth Press, Binghamton, New York.

Rajput R., Kumar K., 2018. A Review on Cannabis sativa: Its Compounds and Their Effects. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res. 53(2), 12, 59–63.

Rana A., 2010. Floral Biology and Pollination Biology of Cannabis sativa L. Int. J. Plant Reprod. Biol. 2(2). 191–195.

Rębarz M., 2009. Konopie. Rośliny przemysłowe. Produkcja roślinna 3, 280–288 [in Polish].

Remberg B., 2009. Recommended methods for the identification and analysis of cannabis and cannabis products. United Nations Publication, New York. Retrieved from: [access 08. 05. 2017].

Rupasinghe V.H.P., Davis A., Kumar K., Murray B., Zheljazkov V.D., 2020. Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa) as an Emerging Source for Value-Added Functional Food Ingredients and Nutraceuticals. Molecules 25, 4078. DOI: 10.3390/molecules25184078.

Schumann E., Peil ., Weber W.E. 1999. Preliminary results of a German field trial with different hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) accessions. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 46, 399–407.

Struik P.C., Amaducci S., Bullard M.J., Stutterheim N.C., Venturi G., Cromack H.T.H., 2000. Agronomy of fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in Europe. Ind Crops Prod 11, 107–118.

Werf H.M.G. van der, 1994. Crop physiology of fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) [PhD thesis], Agricultural University,Wageningen.

Zielonka D.M., Kiraga Ł., Kozłowski R.M., 2020. Medical potential of cannabis: an overview. In: R.M. Kozłowski, M. Mackiewicz-Talarczyk (eds), Handbook of Natural Fibres. Elsevier, Cambridge, 2, 419–448.



Download data is not yet available.
Rekomendowane teksty